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Guide to Patagonia's Monsters & Mysterious beings

I have written a book on this intriguing subject which has just been published.
In this blog I will post excerpts and other interesting texts on this fascinating subject.

Austin Whittall


Wednesday, May 29, 2013

The maze is a maze but not Inca


I wrote to a hotel which is 1,200 m south (3/4 of a mile) from the Labyrinth and asked them if they knew about it. They were kind enough to write and explain:


Buenos días , lei su consulta . el lugar , es un museo a cielo abierto perteneciente al escultor fausto marañon . la figura del laberinto fue realizada por su hija , Yamila marañon . mas info www.pukarainca.com , atte Sergio slobodianiuk geógrafo.

Translation

Good Morning, I read your enquiry. The place, is an open air museum belonging to the sculptor Fausto Marañon. The labyrinth shape was done by his daugher, Yamila Marañon. More details www.pukarainka.com [he was promoting his hotel], Regards Sergio Slobodianiuk geographer.

I immediately googled her name and came across her website and a page dedicated to her mazes, it has photos of the one that I had spotted with Google Earth: her web is http://www.yamyla.com.ar/p/laberintos.html


maze
Closeup of the "Maze" that was not an Inca one.

I felt a bit let down... I had thought that I had discovered - uncovered something new, but, it was very like a cretan maze and I had not found any references to Inca mazes with that shape. So, it was not an Inca maze at all. (if it looks like a dog and barks, it is a dog... if it looks like a Cretan maze it is one (and therefore it is modern).


On the bright side my conjecture about low walls was on the mark.


I will leave my Google Earth armchair exploration and focus on the possible arrival of pre-sapiens humans in America. So I am preparing a post on primitive stone tools in South America (prompted by some information and some bright remarks that Pablo Infantino shared with me (Thank you Pablo).



Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2013 by Austin Whittall © 

Sunday, May 26, 2013

Closer Look at the Inca Maze


I drew the outline of the path within the maze (Uspallata, Mendoza, close to Ruta Nacional 149 highway in Argentina), and it follows the classic "Cretan" design (actually it is a universal design, repeated across the globe spanning thousands of years):


The "inca" labyrinth of Uspallata
maze inca origin

The image above is the maze at Uspallata. In red I outlined the route from the center to the entrance. The yellow line is a "corridor" that leads nowhere. It makes the maze symetrical.

I believe that it is not a maze built with high walls, perhaps it is just a path outlined with boulders, less than 4 inches (10 cm) high. That would explain why the wind or a flood uncovered it recently. Not much soil had to be removed.


Notice how similar it is to the ones below:


Images of similar mazes (from top to bottom): Coimbra, Portugal. Cornwall, England. Finland. Hollywood Stone, UK. Padugula, India. Sardinia, Italy. Syria.


Sources of the images and further reading


The Mystery of the Labyrinth. M. Elviro.


L. Wormhoudth. Labyrinth / Maze


Labyrinthos J. Saward


Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2013 by Austin Whittall © 

Saturday, May 25, 2013

The Uspallata maze is similar to Cretan labyrinths


More photographs of the geoglyph that I found next to National Highway 149 close to Uspallata in Mendoza Province, Argentina.

I used Google Earth image history tool which shows older shots of the same region. For this particular area there are three photographs taken in June 2002, August 2009 and December 2012. Then I went into Bing Maps and found an image which predates 2012 but is later than the August 2009 image (I know this because you can see that the road is being paved, something that happened after Aug. 2009 and before Dec. 2012).


Photo Gallery

Some photographs of the geoglyph over the years:


Geoglyph in Uspallata Mendoza. Copyright © 2013 by Austin Whittall

The sequence shows that the "drawing" was not visible back in 2012, but that it gradually became visible later. Perhaps it was covered with sand which blew away, revealing the shape below it. (or some flash flood from the river which runs just south of it). It does not seem to have been built during this period.


Its main axis seems to run North to South (maybe giving it some geographic or astronomic function). I have no idea what it is, but it is some kind of maze (the lines form a continuous path). I have been looking for similar maze shaped objects in South America but have not been lucky. Posting Labyrinth in Google shows up many shapes, but none exactly like it. Some images below:


cretan coin
The Minotaur's labyrinth. Cretan coin (67 B.C.).

A blog on maths describes how the Cretan maze can be drawn and gives an example and an explanation:


how to make a maze
Making a Classic Cretan maze.


Another online labyrinth site says the following "The two most common labyrinths are the Classic-7 or Cretan and the Medieval or Chartres. The Cretan labyrinth refers to the symbol on the ancient coins from Crete. Its single pathway loops back and forth seven times before reaching the center. Some people think that the Cretan pattern represents the movement of the planet Mercury over an extended period of time." and provides this image (which I have inverted so that it matches the Mendoza geoglyph):


A classic or Cretan Maze.

I don't want to bore you with mazes but the similarity between the Uspallata labyrinth and the Cretan one can one mean one of two things:


1. The wonderful human mind comes up with the same answer to similar questions time and time again, across the world and in different cultural settings. Inca and Cretan made mazes the same way because that is the way human brains think.


2. Cretans came to America, reached Mendoza and built a maze in the middle of nowhere...


I am more inclined to option 1.


I will keep on researching this matter.



Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2013 by Austin Whittall © 

Friday, May 24, 2013

Geoglyph in Mendoza, Argentina


I was pursuing my other "hobby" today, Argentina's National Highway # 40 (or, in Spanish, Ruta Nacional 40) when I came across a Geoglyph shaped like a labyrinth very close to National Highway number 149 in the province of Mendoza, close to the town of Uspallata.


Yes, I know, it has nothing to do with Patagonia or its monsters, but it struck me when I saw it. The "Inca Road" goes down this mountain valley coming from Chile on its way to Cusco, and here was a strange object in the middle of the arid valley.


I just wanted to share it with you, and also the surprising tools that Internet provides the "couch" scientist with!


See it on Google maps and check it out in the image below:


Inca rock shape drawn on the landscape. Copyright © 2013 by Austin Whittall

I checked to see if anyone had reported it, but no, I did not find any references to it.


It is about 50 x 50 meters (166 x 166 ft.).

PS In case you want to know why I was looking at Highway 149 when I am interested in Highway 40, they run parallel in that area, 149 closer to the Andes and link remote towns that are very nice (and I am considering visiting them in the near future). By the way, Ruta 40 is one of the worlds longest national highways +5.200 km (+3.230 mi) long that runs up the Andean side of Argentina from the Strait of Magellan (at Cabo Virgenes) to the Bolivian border at La Quiaca. It climbs to nearly 5,000 m (16.660 ft.) in northern Argentina.


Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2012 by Austin Whittall © 

More on Horses in Patagonia in the 1580s


Another post on the possibility of extant megafaunal horses in South America in the 1500s.

This continues my previous post on the subject.


I have found some references (more below) stating that Spanish explorers sighted natives riding horses in the region next to the Strait of Magellan in 1580. I decided to check the original sources and was surprised to find out that it was not so!:


Sarmiento de Gamboa 1580s

The account of the adventures and exploration of the Strait of Magellan can be found in Sarmiento de Gamboa's book [1]. And, there is an interesting part covering the interrogation that Tomé Hernandez faced in Lima, Peru in 1620 (forty years after the events).


Tome had traveled under the command of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to settle the Strait of Magellan in 1581. The expedition managed to set up two small villages but the ships with supplies never arrived and this doomed the colonies. The settlers were left to die of starvation and disease. The natives accosted them. And very few were alive two and a half years later when English privateer Thomas Cavendish sailed by and offered to take them to Chile.


All except one refused (they were Catholics, Cavendish an English protestant and enemy of Spain), Tomé.


Many years later, the Spaniards, worried about the intentions of the English regarding Patagonia and, also, wanting to know more about that mysterious area, interrogated him.


The image below highlights the interrogation regarding horses. I will translate it:


When Asked: Do the Indians rode horses and if there are any in that land? He Said: That whenever he saw them, they were on foot and that he saw no horses at all


No horses in 1580. From [1]

Darwin 1830s

However Charles Darwin, in his "Voyage of the Beagle" wrote [2] about the "Indians" by the Strait of Magellan:


"In the time of Sarmiento (1580), these Indians had bows and arrows, now long since disused; they then also possessed some horses.
This is a very curious fact, showing the extraordinarily rapid multiplication of horses in South America. The horse was first landed at Buenos Ayres in 1537, and the colony being then for a time deserted, the horse ran wild;* in 1580, only forty-three years afterwards, we hear of them at the Strait of Magellan! Mr. Low informs me, that a neighbouring tribe of foot-Indians is now changing into horse-Indians: the tribe at Gregory Bay giving them their worn-out horses, and sending in winter a few of their best skilled men to hunt for them.
[2]


I went over the text of Gamboa's book and he never mentions horses, only (on page 95 see pdf link below [1]), "deer" and "anta" (that is, tapir... I have posted on tapir in Patagonia elsewhere.)


So, in all fairness, Darwin misinterpreted Sarmiento's text assuming there were horses here. Sarmiento never mentioned horses. Other Spanish authors of the time did, but not Sarmiento.


Sources


[1] xxvii Page Viage al Estrecho de Magallanes por el Capitan Pedro Sarmiento de Gambóa en ... By Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa 1768


[2] Darwin, C. R. 1845. Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world, under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N. 2d edition. London: John Murray. pp 232



Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2013 by Austin Whittall © 

Sunday, May 12, 2013

Extant Patagonian Horses Part III


This is our third post on the series about "Extant Native American Megafaunal Horses", and our second part regarding Anibal Cardoso's 1912 essay on the subject [1]


See the previous posts:

Part II
Part I

Cardoso mentions that the natives engraved rocks with American ostrich (Rhea) foot prints and also horse hoof marks. I have posted about this type of rock art in Patagonia ( Read More ).


He then goes on to analyze the Boleadoras. These were made by placing a stone inside a tightly fitting leather pouch, tied to a braided leather cord. They came in different varieties:


Bola perdida, a single stone, used to hit an animal or kill an opponent by smashing them on the head. They could be hurled long distances at running prey, to knock them on the head or body.


The small 2 stone variety. It was used to hunt Rhea (American ostrich) and was guanaco (the animal from which domesticated llama descend, native to Argentina). These were known as Bolas. One stone was larger than the other one (it was held by this one while the other whirled around the head). They were thrown at the neck of the animal because it was difficult to ensnare their legs.


The larger 3 stone variety used exclusively to hunt horses. The stones were considerably larger than the "bolas" type.


Bolas are found where guanaco and Rhea are abundant, from Bolivia to the tip of Patagonia. The 3 stone kind are found in the Pampas and Patagonia: the land of the American horse.


Patagonian horses

Cardoso quotes Alcides Mercerat [2]:


"I will just point out the presence of wild or Bagual horses in the Andes. It is a horse that is slightly shorter than the horse that currently lives in the Pampa, and its hide is invariably of the color known as rosillo. From the Indian traditions it seems that this horse has always existed in the Andes and that therefore this animal has never become extinct in American soil."

Rosillo colored horse.

Rosillo. This color is a mixture of red, black and white, where the first two prevail. See the photograph below.


Bagual. The word used by Mercerat, Bagual or Bawal, is not of Spanish origin. According to Cardoso, when the Spaniards resettled Buenos Aires in 1580, they used the native word for "wild horses" which in Spanish are called "Cimarrón" or "alzado" (feral, wild). They adopted the word used by the Querandí natives: Bagüalada as a collective noun and Bawal or Bagual as singular.


The English pronounciation of Bagual is: "Bag- Wall". Which as we will see below is not at all like the word used for horse.


The name given by the native Puelche in the Pampas, the Tehuelche in Northeast, Central and Southern Patagonia and the Mapuche in Chile and Northwestern Patagonia are all very similar: Kahualk, Kaahuel and Kahuwello (in English it would sound something like: "Cow-L-Oh") yet they derive from Bagual even though they sound similar to the Spanish word Caballo (horse) - it sounds, using English pronunciation as follows: "Cab-Al-E-Oh".


However, the Mapuche had a specific non-Spanish-origin word for mares: Auca and wild colts: Caftá. These were used in Prehispanic days. Only after the Spanish conquest did they adopt the word Kahuello to apply it to domesticated horses.


The maths

Cardoso goes on to do the numbers. He takes the 5 mares that were allegedly left behind when Buenos Aires was abandoned. And calculates their offspring.


Each mare has a life expectancy of 20 years, and produces an offspring each after an 11 month pregnancy, with an 80% survival rate and a 50/50 male to female mix. These in turn would reproduce after the age of 3.


The outcome, between 1537 and 1582 yields only 1,580 horses in total. A figure way below the "vast quantity of animals roaming the prairies from the sea to the Andes".


He does another calculation assuming no ponies dying, that the mix of offspring is 3 mares to 2 colts and that they begin to reproduce when they are 2 1/2 years old. This results in: 23.292 animals.


The only way to get vast quantities of horses is by assuming that they were already there in vast quantities: native horses.


More information

Apart from Cardoso, we have some additional information on these "American" horses.


Charles Darwin and George Musters both wrote that Spanish explorer had seen horses at the Strait of Magellan in 1580 and marvelled at how quickly they had dispersed from the River Plate to the tip of the continent. However Drake, was attacked by natives on foot at Puerto Deseado in Central-East Patagonia in 1586.


If the animals came from the North, from Buenos Aires, why were none seen in Central Patagonia yet they were abundant in Southern Patagonia?


An explanation is that they survived the shipwreck of the fleet of the Bishop of Plasencia, which carried horses. This happened in 1526, and only one ship survived, they did not manage to help the castaways and returned to Spain. The survivors were never seen again. Could these horses have survived in Patagonia?


Sources

[1] Anibal Cardoso (1912), Antigüedad del Caballo En El Plata. Anal. Mus. Nac. Bs. As., Serie III t. xv. Marzo 4, 1912. pp 371+ Read the article.


[2] Alcides Mercerat, Un viaje de exploración en la Patagonia Austral.



Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2012 by Austin Whittall © 

Thursday, May 9, 2013

Extant Native American Horses Part II


I will continue with the Second Part of my Previous Post.


A very deep and well documented paper was written on the possible survival of native American horses in Argentina until the mid sixteenth century. Its title "Antigüedad del Caballo En El Plata" (The Antiquity of the Horse in the River Plate), and its author: Anibal Cardoso. [1]


Cardoso tackles the matter from different angles, which I will summarize in this post:


The Source of the horses

According to the orthodox view, when in May 1541 the Spaniards abandoned the first town that they had established on the River Plate (the first Buenos Aires, founded by Pedro de Mendoza in 1536), they left behind 5 mares and 7 horses. They burned the settlement and moved up the Paraná River to Asunción in Paraguay.


They had decided to leave because there was no food and the natives were hostile. Paraguay was warmer, food was plentiful and the natives were peaceful farmers.


Then, in 1580, the settlers in Asunción needing a port on the coast, returned downstream and built a second town (current Buenos Aires). They saw many horses and mares, tall as mountains all along the coast, for 80 leagues (400 km - 250 mi) and inland, up to the Andes.


So, the official version is this: these 12 European horses bred in freedom, roaming the Pampas and in 40 years filled it with hundreds of thousands of wild ponies.


Cardoso disagrees

This account of the "abandoned" horses was written in 1612 by Ruy Díaz de Guzm&aactute;n. But the official accounts written during the settlement of Buenos Aires and the relocation of its inhabitants do not mention it.


Ulrich Shmidl, a German mercenary who came to Argentina with Pedro de Mendoza in 1536 wrote a detailed account of his life in the first Buenos Aires and later on in Asunción. They literally starved to death, they ate rats, snakes, the corpses of executed prisoners, the soles of their shoes, and of course, their horses. Possibly none survived.


When they left for Asunción in 1541 they burned the town to leave nothing to the bellicose Querandi natives. So any surviving horses which were used in combat, would not have been left behind.


They did leave pigs on an island in the River Plate (San Gabriel), and left specific instructions about them. But not one word was written about horses.


The documents at Asunción do not mention horses until the arrival of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1542. So, none were brought from Buenos Aires. All had been eaten by the starving inhabitants.


Cabeza de Vaca brought 27 horses with him. And they were an expensive item, worth 4,000 gold Reales. A fortune. In 1547 only 26 were still alive. But in 1553, Asunción had 130 horses!. These must have been provided by the natives, in exchange for Spanish goods. The horses were native ones, from the Pampas.


The Horses were local ones

Cardoso says that the Spaniards at Buenos Aires did not see horses in 1536 - 41 because the Querandi hunted horses, so the animals just moved away from the coast, inland. Furthermore, the coastal jungles were home to jaguars which preyed on the horses. This led to very few horses along the coast.


Later, in 1580, the Spaniards returned in force, they repelled the Querandi and advanced inland. That was when the came across the horses, vast quantities of them. Native American horses.


The Spaniards however said that these horses were the offspring of the ones left behind by Mendoza. Why? To avoid paying taxes to the Spanish King.


The Royal Tax Collectors said that the horses belonged to the King as they were part of his domains. But, after going to court, the judge found in 1596 that since they were the descendants of horses brought by Mendoza in 1536, they were not "of the land", but feral horses and therefore exempt of taxation.


The Spaniards knew about the horses from the natives, they knew that they were American horses and not European ones gone wild, they made up the "Mendoza's horses which ran wild" story just to avoid paying taxes.


The natives had never seen a horse and were frightened by them

Not so! says Cardoso. Ulrich Schmidl wrote about a battle between natives and Spaniards. The former used bows and arrows and also Boleadoras, with which they entangled the legs of the horses making them trip and fall.


Boleadoras are basically a rounded stone wrapped in leather to which a long braided cord of leather is tied. The tip of the cord is whirled around the head of the thrower, and released.


One single stone is known as "bola perdida" (lost stone ball) and was used to knock an enemy on the head, killing him. Also to hunt. The stone hit and maimed.


Two or three stones could be tied into a "V" or a "Y" configuration and whirled. The 2 or 3 cords wrapped around the hind quarters of the prey, causing it to fall.


Different stone sizes were used for different prey. Heavy stones were used for large animals, i.e. horses. Light stones for the American rhea (ostrich like) and the guanaco and deer.


The Querandi and the Chilean Araucanian - Mapuche natives fought the Spaniards in bogs, where their horses stuck fast in the mud. They evidently used this technique in the past to hunt native horses; they knew their prey and were not frightened of them.


Physiological similarities between the Argentine Creole horse and the Hippidion

Cardoso cites a Professor Van de Pas, who compared the anatomy of an Argentine Creole breed horse with other modern horses and also prehistoric extinct ones. His findings are surprising:


The Creole horse has its fingers II and IV mor atrophied and the main metatarsals are highly compressed, laterally, and resemble those of the Hippidion which was a South American horse whose fossil remains are found in the Pampas during the megafaunal period.


The image compares the bone structure of a modern European horse, the modern Argentine Creole horse, an ancient Old World fossil horse (Hipparium) and the recent Argentine fossil Hippidion. Notice the similarity between the Creole horse and the Hippidion leg bones and the difference with the European ones! If Creole came from European stock, why would it resemble the native (allegedly extinct) horse?



Comparison of the toes of Modern European horse, Argentine Creole horse and prehistoric horses (Hipparion and Hippidium).

We will carry on with his analysis in our next post.


Sources

[1] Anibal Cardoso (1912), Antigüedad del Caballo En El Plata. Anal. Mus. Nac. Bs. As., Serie III t. xv. Marzo 4, 1912. pp 371+ Read the article.



Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2013 by Austin Whittall © 

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

Survival of Prehistoric horses in South America until the Discovery of America


SSome time ago, I posted on the possible survival of pre-hispanic horses in Southern South America. That is, that native American horses managed to survive extinction (as mainstream science argues) until the arrival of the horses brought "back" to America from Europe by the Spanish explorers and "Conquistadors"


In my post (Extant Extinct Patagonian Ponies), I wrote:


"... A book published by Sir Edwin Ray Lankester (1847-1927) was a British naturalist and professor at Cambridge and Oxford Universities. In a book published in 1910, he wrote the following:
It is also said that the Araucanian Indians of Patagonia have a peculiar breed of ponies, which may be derived in part from a native South American stock. I have never been able to procure a skull of this breed
Unfortunatley, Lankaster does not mention his sources! So I must keep on digging through books till I find them..."

Well, I have come across Sir Edwin's book and the full quote is the following (he mentions Cabot too, which is a new lead to follow):


"...there is evidence in South America of the co-existence there of peculiar kinds of horse with the "Indian" natives. It is even alleged that Cabot, in 1530, saw horses in Argentina, which were the last survivors of the native South American Species. And it is also said that the Araucanian Indians of Patagonia have a peculiar breed of ponies which may be derived in art from a native South American stock. I have never been able to procure a skull of this breed, or any detailed description of it." [1]

Sebastian Cabot the mariner


An earlier book written in 1891 by William Flower addresses the same issue and points out that it is surprising that the horse died out in America since the European one found "...the climate, food and other circumstances highly favorable to their existence" [2].


The author adds, that:


"The usual statement as to the complete extinction of the horse in America is thus qualified, as there is a possibility of the animal having still existed, in a wild state, in some parts of the continent remote from that which was first visited by the Spaniards, where they were certainly unknown.
It has been suggested that the horses which were found by Cabot in La Plata in 1530 cannot have been introduced. See M. "Wilckens's " Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der Palaontologie der Hausthiere" (Biolog. Centralblat., 1889)
[2].

So we have another reference to Sebastian Cabot, (ca. 1474 - ca. 1557) a Venetian explorer who worked for the Kings of England and Spain. He set sail to North and South America.


It is probable that he sighted the horses mentioned by Sir Edwin and Mr. Flower, during his Expedition to the River Plate (1526-1529). Actually he was to set sail and follow Magellan's route to the Spice Islands in the Far East via the Strait of Magellan. But he heard about gold and silver from the natives along the Southern coast of Brazil.


This changed his course: he went into the River which another Spaniard, Solís had discovered in 1516 (known as Solís River), and renamed it "Silver River" (Río de la Plata - which in English has been deformed into River Plate. Plate a phonetic equivalent to Plata -silver).


He sailed up stream and set up a fort with a village at the mouth of the Carcaraña River on the Paraná River. This was actually the first Spanish enclave in what is now Southern South America and Argentina: Sancti Spiritus (Latin for "Holy Ghost").


Ciudad de los Césares: City of Caesars


What the Brazilian natives had told him was true, there was gold and silver upstream in the mountains in the Inca Empire (Peru and Bolivia) which would be conquered by Francisco Pizarro in the 1530s. But Cabot was too far away and lacked horses.


He sent off some groups of explorers north and west to find the wealth. Only one group returned, that of Captain César, who came back with some gold and stories of fantastically wealthy cities inhabited by white men... the Ciudad de los Césares (City of Caesars - the Caesar part is due to the name of the Captain: César, Spanish for Caesar). The "Eldorado" myth of Chile, Argentina and, especially, Patagonia.


The natives grew hostile and burned the settlement. Cabot gave up and returned to Spain to face the angry King (he had disobeyed his orders and had not gone to the Spice Islands).


He was tried and condemned to exile in North Africa but Cabot told the King about the potential of the region and was apparently pardoned and remained Pilot-Major of Spain until 1547.

His Map

The horse reported by Cabot was drawn in his "Tabula del gran río" (1533?) and in a later World Map. Below is a detail showing the "horse" and the Paraná River.


Cabot map
Detail of Cabot's map (1533)

He correctly depicts a jaguar and a parrot next to the horse. Why draw a horse? Only if it was a local native animal, otherwise there is no reason for one in the map.


Of course, he may have made the whole thing up. And that is what Mr. Walker Demarquis Wyman writes:"Since no future navigators reported seeing native horses, and since the Indian obviously had not known the horse before the Spanish introduced it, it seems clear that Cabot, in the words of E. L. Trouessart, "is a liar"" [3].


To be continued...


We will see in my next post why the other navigators did not see horses and also learn why the Indians did know about their existence prior to the arrival of the European horses.


Sources

[1] Sir Ray Lankester, (1925). Science From An Easy Chair. pp. 89-90

[2] Flower, William Henry, (1891) The Horse, A study in Natural HistoryD. Afplkton and Co.

[3] Walker Demarquis Wyman. Wild Horses of the Wes. pp 40.



Patagonian Monsters - Cryptozoology, Myths & legends in Patagonia Copyright 2009-2013 by Austin Whittall © 
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